1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
2Pediatric, College of Medicine, Qassim Universitym, KSA
3Maternal Childhood Hospital, Qassim, KSA
4Medical Students, Assiut University, Egypt
5Pharmacy Students, Assiut University, Egypt
Background : Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by selective destruction of pancreatic beta cells.
Methods: The study included 80 children, 20 of them have T1DM, 40 children were selected from first degree relatives to the same child and 20 healthy children serve as control. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, random blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (GHbA1c) were measured. The following biochemical markers were measured in sera of all subjects by ELISA kits: Human insulin ,C-peptide, human islet cell antibody (ICA), insulin auto antibodies (IAA) and antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies.
Results : This study showed that diabetic children had high level of ICA (65%), IAA (55%), anti-GAD antibodies (50%) and decrease in C-peptide (60%). Whereas the relatives showed high level of anti-GAD antibodies (30%), IAA(25%), ICA(2.5) and decrease in C-peptide (30%). Anti-GAD antibodies were significantly higher among the relatives of the diabetics compared to the healthy controls.
Conclusions : The strongest predictors of diabetes were C- peptide and islets cell antibodies, which had odd ratio 4.7 and 3.1, respectively. Autoantibodies could distinguish T1DM patients from healthy control subjects and they may also identify individuals at high risk during progression from pre-diabetes to overt disease.